joe - Joe's Own Editor

     joe [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

     jstar [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

     jmacs [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

     rjoe [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

     jpico [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

     JOE is a powerful ASCII-text screen editor.  It has  a  "mode-less"  user
     interface  which  is  similer to many user-friendly PC editors.  Users of
     Micro-Pro's WordStar or Borland's "Turbo" languages will  feel  at  home.
     JOE  is  a full featured UNIX screen-editor though, and has many features
     for editing programs and text.

     JOE also emulates several other editors.  JSTAR is a close immitation  of
     WordStar  with many "JOE" extensions.  JPICO is a close immitation of the
     Pine  mailing  system's  PICO  editor,  but  with  many  extensions   and
     improvements.   JMACS  is  a  GNU-EMACS immitation.  RJOE is a restricted
     version of JOE, which allowes you to edit only the files specified on the
     command line.

     Although JOE is actually five different editors, it still  requires  only
     one  executable,  but  one  with  five  different names.  The name of the
     editor with an "rc" appended gives the name of JOE's initialization file,
     which determines the personality of the editor.

     JOE is free software;  you can distribute it and/or modify it  under  the
     terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
     Foundation.  I have no plans for turning JOE into a commercial or  share-
     ware  product.   JOE is available over the Internet by anonymous FTP from, file: src/editors/joe*.tar.Z.


     To start the editor, type joe followed by zero or more names of files you
     want  to edit.  Each file name may be preceeded by a local option setting
     (see the local options table which follows).  Other global options, which
     apply  to  the  editor as a whole, may also be placed on the command line
     (see the global options table which follows).  If you are editing  a  new
     file,  you  can  either give the name of the new file when you invoke the
     editor, or in the editor when you save the new file.  A  modified  syntax
     for  file names is provided to allow you to edit program output, standard
     input/output, or sections of files or devices.  See the section Filenames
     below for details.

     Once you are in the editor, you can type in text and use special control-
     character sequences to perform other editing tasks.  To find out what the
     control-character sequences are, read the rest of this man page  or  type
     ^K H for help in the editor.

     Now for some obscure computer-lore:

     The ^ means that you  hold  down  the  Control  key  while  pressing  the
     following  key  (the same way the Shift key works for uppercase letters).
     A number of control-key sequences are duplicated on other keys,  so  that
     you  don't  need  to press the control key: ESC will work in place of ^[,
     Del will work in place of ^?, Backspace will work in  place  of  ^H,  Tab
     will  work  in  place of ^I, Return or Enter will work in place of ^M and
     Linefeed will work in place of ^J.  Some keyboards may give  you  trouble
     with  some  control  keys.   ^_, ^^ and ^@ can usually be entered without
     pressing shift (I.E., try ^-, ^6 and ^2).  Other keyboards  may  reassign
     these to other keys.  Try:  ^., ^, and ^/.  ^SPACE can usually be used in
     place of ^@.  ^\ and ^] are interpreted by many  communication  programs,
     including  telnet  and kermit.  Usually you just hit the key twice to get
     it to pass through the communication program.

     Once you have typed ^K H, the first help window appears at the top of the
     screen.  You can continue to enter and edit text while the help window is
     on.  To page through other topics, hit ^[, and ^[. (that is,  ESC  ,  and
     ESC .).  Use ^K H to dismiss the help window.

     You can customize the keyboard layout, the help screens and a  number  of
     behavior  defaults  by copying JOE's initialization file (/usr/lib/joerc)
     to .joerc in your home directory and  then  by  modifying  it.   See  the
     section joerc below.

     To have JOE used as your default editor for e-mail and News, you need  to
     set   the   EDITOR   and  VISUAL  environment  variables  in  your  shell
     initialization file (.cshrc or .profile) to refer to JOE (joe resides  as

     There are a number of other obscure invocation parameters which may  have
     to  be  set,  particularly if your terminal screen is not updating as you
     think it should.  See the section Environment variables below.

Command Line Options

     The following global options may be specified on the command line:

          Characters with codes above 127 will be sent to the terminal  as-is,
          instead  of as inverse of the corresponding character below 128.  If
          this does not work, check your terminal server.

     -backpath path
          If this option  is  given,  backup  files  will  be  stored  in  the
          specified directory instead of in each file's original directory.

     -baud nnn
          Set the baud rate for the purposes of terminal screen  optimization.
          Joe  inserts  delays  for baud rates below 19200, which bypasses tty
          buffering so  that  typeahead  will  interrupt  the  screen  output.
          Scrolling  commands will not be used for 38400 baud.  This is useful
          for X-terms and other console ttys which really aren't going over  a
          serial line.

          Joe will beep on command  errors  and  when  the  cursor  goes  past

     -columns nnn
          Sets the number of screen columns.

          Continued search mode: a search immediatly following a  search  will
          repeat  the  previous  search  instead  of prompting for new string.
          This is useful for the the ^[S and ^[R commands and for when joe  is
          trying to be emacs.

          Joe usually assumes that there is some kind of flow control  between
          it  and  the  tty.  If there isn't, this option will make joe output
          extra ^@s to the tty as specified by the termcap entry.   The  extra
          ^@s allow the terminal to catch up after long terminal commands.

          This option makes ^KX verify the file name that it's about to write.

          This option makes sure that the last line of the file  has  a  line-
          feed which it's saved.

          The editor will start with the help screen  on  if  this  option  is

          Normally the column number and  control-key  prefix  fields  of  the
          status  lines  are  on a one second delay to reduce CPU consumption,
          but with this option they are updated after each key-stroke.

          The block highlighting will go away after any block command if  this
          option is given.

     -lines nnn
          Sets the number of screen lines.

          Text between ^KB and the cursor is highlighted (use  with  -lightoff
          and   a   modified  joerc  file  to  have  drop-anchor  style  block

     -mid If this option is set and the  cursor  moves  off  the  window,  the
          window  will  be scrolled so that the cursor is in the center.  This
          option is forced  on  slow  terminals  which  don't  have  scrolling

          This option prevents backup files.

          This option prevent the copyright notice from being  displayed  when
          the editor starts.

          This option eliminates the top-most status line.  It's nice for when
          you  only  want  to see your text on the screen or if you're using a

          Attempt to turn off ^S/^Q processing.  This is useful for  when  joe
          is trying to be WordStar or EMACS.

          When this option is active, extra files on the command line will  be
          placed  in  orphaned  buffers  instead of in extra windows.  This is
          useful for when joe is trying to be emacs.

     -pg nnn
          This specifies the number of lines to keep after PgUp/PgDn  (^U/^V).
          If -1 is given, half the window is kept.

     -skiptop nnn
          Don't use the top nnn lines of the screen.  Useful for when  joe  is
          used as a BBS editor.

     Each of these options may be specified in the joerc  file  as  well.   In
     addition,  the  NOXON,  BAUD, LINES, COLUMNS and DOPADDING options may be
     specified with environment variables.

     The JOETERM environment variable may be set to override the regular  TERM
     environment variable for specifying your terminal type.

     The following options may  be  specified  before  each  filename  on  the
     command line:

     +nnn The cursor starts on the specified line.

          Joe uses CR-LF as the end of line sequence instead of just LF.  This
          is for editing MS-DOS or VMS files.

          Joe wraps the previous word when you type past the right margin.

          When you  hit  Return  on  an  indented  line,  the  indentation  is
          duplicated onto the new line.

          Typing overwrites existing characters instead  of  inserting  before

     -lmargin nnn
          Sets the left margin.

     -rmargin nnn
          Sets the right margin.

     -tab nnn
          Sets the tab width.

     -indentc nnn
          Sets the indentation character for ^K, and ^K. (32 for SPACE, 9  for

     -istep nnn
          Sets the indentation step for ^K, and ^K..

          Line numbers are displayed before each line.

          The file is read only.

     -keymap name
          Use an alternate section of the joerc  file  for  the  key  sequence

     These options can also be specified in the joerc file.  They can  be  set
     depending  on the file-name extension.  Programs (.c, .h or .p extension)
     usually have autoindent enabled.  Wordwrap is enabled on other files, but
     rc files have it disabled.

Editing Tasks

  Basic Editing

     When you type characters into the editor, they are normally inserted into
     the  file  being  edited (or appended to the file if the cursor is at the
     end of the file).  This is the normal operating mode of the  editor.   If
     you  want  to replace some existing text, you have to delete the old text
     before or after you type in the replacement text.  The Backspace key  can
     be  used  for  deleting text: move the cursor to right after the text you
     want to delete and hit Backspace a number of times.

     Hit the Enter or Return key to insert a line-break.  For example, if  the
     cursor  was in the middle of a line and you hit Return, the line would be
     split into two lines with the cursor appearing at the  beginning  of  the
     second  line.   Hit  Backspace  at the beginning of a line to eliminate a

     Use the arrow keys to move around the file.   If  your  keyboard  doesn't
     have  arrow  keys (or if they don't work for some reason), use ^F to move
     forwards (right), ^B to move backwards (left), ^P to move to the previous
     line  (up),  and  ^N to move to the next line (down).  The right and left
     arrow keys simply move forwards or backwards  one  character  at  a  time
     through  the  text:  if  you're  at the beginning of a line and you press
     left-arrow, you will end up at the end of the previous line.  The up  and
     down  arrow keys move forwards and backwards by enough characters so that
     the cursor appears in the same column that it  was  in  on  the  original

     If you want to indent the text you enter, you can use the TAB  key.  This
     inserts  a  special  control  character  which makes the characters which
     follow it begin at the next TAB STOP.  TAB STOPS normally occur  every  8
     columns,  but  this  can  be changed with the ^T D command.  PASCAL and C
     programmers often set TAB STOPS on every 4 columns.

     If for some reason your terminal screen gets messed up (for  example,  if
     you receive a mail notice from biff), you can have the editor refresh the
     screen by hitting ^R.

     There are many other keys for deleting text and moving around  the  file.
     For  example,  hit ^D to delete the character the cursor is on instead of
     deleting backwards like Backspace.  ^D will also delete a  line-break  if
     the  cursor  is  at the end of a line.  Type ^Y to delete the entire line
     the cursor is on or ^J to delete just from the cursor to the end  of  the

     Hit ^A to move the cursor to the beginning of the line it's on.   Hit  ^E
     to  move  the  cursor to the end of the line.  Hit ^U or ^V for scrolling
     the cursor up or down 1/2 a screen's worth. "Scrolling"  means  that  the
     text on the screen moves, but the cursor stays at the same place relative
     to the screen.  Hit ^K U or ^K V to move the cursor to the  beginning  or
     the end of the file.  Look at the help screens in the editor to find even
     more delete and movement commands.

     If you make a mistake, you can hit ^_ to "undo" it.   On  most  keyboards
     you  hit  just  ^- to get ^_, but on some you might have to hold both the
     Shift and Control keys down at the same time to get it.   If  you  "undo"
     too  much,  you  can "redo" the changes back into existence by hitting ^^
     (type this with just ^6 on most keyboards).

     If you  were  editing  in  one  place  within  the  file,  and  you  then
     temporarily had to look or edit some other place within the file, you can
     get back to the original place by hitting ^K -.   This  command  actually
     returns  you  to  the  last place you made a change in the file.  You can
     step through a history of places with ^K - and ^K =, in the same way  you
     can  step  through  the  history  of  changes  with the "undo" and "redo"

     When you are done editing the file, hit ^K X to  exit  the  editor.   You
     will be prompted for a file name if you hadn't already named the file you
     were editing.

     When you edit a file, you actually edit only a copy of the file.   So  if
     you  decide  that  you don't want the changes you made to a file during a
     particular edit session, you can hit ^C to exit the editor without saving

     If you edit a file and save the changes, a "backup" copy of that file  is
     created  in  the  current directory, with a ~ appended to the name, which
     contains the original version of the file.

  Word wrap and formatting

     If you type past the right edge of the screen in a C language  or  PASCAL
     file,  the  screen will scroll to the right to follow the cursor.  If you
     type past the right edge of the screen in a normal file (one  whose  name
     doesn't  end  in .c, .h or .p), JOE will automatically wrap the last word
     onto the next line so that you don't have to hit Return.  This is  called
     word-wrap mode.  Word-wrap can be turned on or off with the ^T W command.
     JOE's initialization file  is  usually  set  up  so  that  this  mode  is
     automatically turned on for all non-program files.  See the section below
     on the joerc file to change this and other defaults.

     Aside for Word-wrap mode, JOE  does  not  automatically  keep  paragraphs
     formatted like some word-processors.  Instead, if you need a paragraph to
     be reformatted, hit ^K J.  This command "fills in" the paragraph that the
     cursor  is  in,  fitting  as  many  words  in  a  line as is possible.  A
     paragraph, in this case, is a block of text separated above and below  by
     a blank line.

     The margins which JOE uses for paragraph formatting and word-wrap can  be
     set  with  the  ^T  L  and ^T R commands.  If the left margin is set to a
     value other than 1, then when you start typing  at  the  beginning  of  a
     line, the cursor will immediately jump to the left margin.

     If you want to center a line within the margins, use the ^K A command.

  Over-type mode

     Sometimes it's tiresome to have to delete old text before  or  after  you
     insert  new  text.   This  happens,  for example, when you are changing a
     table and you want to maintain the column position of the right  side  of
     the  table.  When  this  occurs, you can put the editor in over-type mode
     with ^T T. When the editor is in this mode, the characters  you  type  in
     replace  existing  characters,  in the way an idealized typewriter would.
     Also, Backspace simply moves left instead of deleting  the  character  to
     the  left,  when  it's  not at the end or beginning of a line.  Over-type
     mode is not the natural way of dealing with text electronically,  so  you
     should go back to insert-mode as soon as possible by typing ^T T again.

     If you need to insert while you're  in  over-type  mode,  hit  ^@.   This
     inserts a single SPACE into the text.

  Control and Meta characters

     Each character is represented by a number.  For example, the  number  for
     'A'  is 65 and the number for '1' is 49.  All of the characters which you
     normally see have numbers in the range  of  32  -  126  (this  particular
     arbitrary  assignment  between characters and numbers is called the ASCII
     character set).  The numbers outside of this range, from 0 to 255, aren't
     usually displayed, but sometimes have other special meanings.  The number
     10, for example, is used  for  the  line-breaks.   You  can  enter  these
     special,  non-displayed  control  characters  by first hitting ` and then
     hitting a character in the range @ A B C ... X Y Z [ ^ ] \ _ to  get  the
     number  0  -  31,  and ? to get 127.  For example, if you hit ` J, you'll
     insert a line-break character, or if you hit ` I,  you'll  insert  a  TAB
     character (which does the same thing the TAB key does).  A useful control
     character to enter is 12 (` L), which causes most printers to advance  to
     the  top  of the page.  You'll notice that JOE displays this character as
     an underlined L.  You can  enter  the  characters  above  127,  the  meta
     characters,  by  first  hitting  ^\.  This adds 128 to the next (possibly
     control)  character  entered.   JOE  displays  characters  above  128  in
     inverse-video.   Some  foreign  languages,  which  have more letters than
     English, use the meta characters for the rest  of  their  alphabet.   You
     have  to  put  the  editor  in  ASIS mode (described later) to have these
     passed untranslated to the terminal.

     If you hit TAB at any file name prompt, joe will attempt to complete  the
     name you entered as much as possible.  If it couldn't complete the entire
     name, because there are more than one possible  completions,  joe  beeps.
     If  you  hit  TAB again, joe list the completions.  You can use the arrow
     keys to move around this directory menu and  press  RETURN  or  SPACE  to
     select  an  item.   If you press the first letter of one of the directory
     entries, it will be selected, or if more than  one  entry  has  the  same
     first letter, the cursor will jump between those entries.  If you  select
     a  subdirectory  or  .., the directory name is appended to the prompt and
     the new directory is loaded into the menu.  You can hit Backspace  to  go
     back to the previous directory.

     Most prompts record a history of the responses you give  them.   You  can
     hit up and down arrow to step through these histories.

     Prompts are actually single line windows with no status line, so you  can
     use any editing command that you normally use on text within the prompts.
     The prompt history is actually just  other  lines  of  the  same  "prompt
     file".   Thus you can can search backwards though the prompt history with
     the normal ^K F command if you want.

     Since prompts are windows, you can also switch out of them with ^K P  and
     ^K N.

  Where am I?

     Hit ^K SPACE to have JOE report the line number, column number, and  byte
     number  on  the  last line of the screen.  The number associated with the
     character the cursor is on (its ASCII code) is also shown.  You can  have
     the  line number and/or column number always displayed on the status line
     by setting placing the appropriate escape sequences in  the  status  line
     setup strings.  Edit the joerc file for details.

  File operations

     You can hit ^K D to save the current file  (possibly  under  a  different
     name from what the file was called originally).  After the file is saved,
     you can hit ^K E to edit a different file.

     If you want to save only a selected section of the file, see the  section
     on Blocks below.

     If you want to include another file in the file you're editing, use ^K  R
     to insert it.

  Temporarily suspending the editor

     If you need to temporarily stop the editor and go back to the shell,  hit
     ^K  Z.   You  might  want  to do this to stop whatever you're editing and
     answer an e-mail message or read this man page, for example.  You have to
     type fg or exit (you'll be told which when you hit ^K Z) to return to the

  Searching for text

     Hit ^K F to have the editor search  forwards  or  backwards  for  a  text
     fragment  (string)  for you.  You will be prompted for the text to search
     for.  After you hit Return, you are prompted to enter  options.  You  can
     just  hit Return again to have the editor immediately search forwards for
     the text, or you can enter one or more of these options:

     b    Search backwards instead of forwards.

     i    Treat uppercase and lower case letters as the same  when  searching.
          Normally  uppercase  and  lowercase  letters  are  considered  to be

     nnn  (where nnn is a number) If you enter a number, JOE searches for  the
          Nth  occurrence  of  the text.  This is useful for going to specific
          places in files structured in some regular manner.

     r    Replace text.  If you enter the r option, then you will  be  further
          prompted  for  replacement  text.   Each  time  the editor finds the
          search text, you will be prompted as to whether you want to  replace
          the  found  search  text  with  the replacement text.  You hit: y to
          replace the text and then find the next occurrence, n to not replace
          this text, but to then find the next occurrence, r to replace all of
          the remaining occurrences of the search text in the remainder of the
          file  without  asking  for  confirmation  (subject to the nnn option
          above), or ^C to stop searching and replacing.

     You can hit ^L to repeat the previous search.

  Regular Expressions

     A number of special character sequences may be entered as search text:

     \*   This finds zero or more characters.  For example, if you  give  A\*B
          as the search text, JOE will try to find an A followed by any number
          of characters and then a B.

     \?   This finds exactly one character.  For example, if you give A\?B  as
          the search text, JOE will find AXB, but not AB or AXXB.

     \^ \$
          These match the beginning and end of a line.  For  example,  if  you
          give \^test\$, then JOE with find test on a line by itself.

     \< \>
          These match the beginning and end of a word.  For  example,  if  you
          give  \<\*is\*\>, then joe will find whole words which have the sub-
          string is within them.

          This matches any single character which appears within the brackets.
          For  example,  if \[Tt]his is entered as the search string, then JOE
          finds both This and this.   Ranges  of  characters  can  be  entered
          within  the  brackets.   For  example,  \[A-Z]  finds  any uppercase
          letter.  If the first character given in the brackets is ^, then JOE
          tries to find any character not given in the the brackets.

     \c   This works like \*, but matches a  balanced  C-language  expression.
          For  example,  if  you search for malloc(\c), then JOE will find all
          function calls  to  malloc,  even  if  there  was  a  )  within  the

     \+   This finds zero or more of the character which  immediately  follows
          the  \+.   For example, if you give \[ ]\+\[ ], where the characters
          within the brackets are both SPACE  and  TAB,  then  JOE  will  find

     \\   Matches a single \.

     \n   This finds the special end-of-line or line-break character.

     A number of  special  character  sequences  may  also  be  given  in  the
     replacement string:

     \&   This gets replaced by the text which matched the search string.  For
          example,  if  the search string was \<\*\>, which matches words, and
          you give "\&", then joe will put quote marks around words.

     \0 - \9
          These get replaced with the text which matched the Nth \*,  \?,  \+,
          \c, \+, or \[...] in the search string.

     \\   Use this if you need to put a \ in the replacement string.

     \n   Use this if you need to put a line-break in the replacement string.

     Some examples:

     Suppose you have a list of addresses, each  on  a  separate  line,  which
     starts  with  "Address:"  and has each element separated by commas.  Like

     Address: S. Holmes, 221b Baker St., London, England

     If you wanted to rearrange the list, to get the country first,  then  the
     city, then the person's name, and then the address, you could do this:

     Type ^K F to start the search, and type:


     to match "Address:", the four comma-separated elements, and then the  end
     of  the  line.   When  asked for options, you would type r to replace the
     string, and then type:


     To shuffle the information the way you want it. After hitting return, the
     search would begin, and the sample line would be changed to:

     Address: England, London, S. Holmes, 221b Baker St.


     If you want to move, copy, save or delete a specific section of text, you
     can  do  it with highlighted blocks.  First, move the cursor to the start
     of the section of text you want to work on, and press ^K  B.   Then  move
     the  cursor  to  the character just after the end of the text you want to
     affect and press ^K K.  The text between the ^K B and ^K K should  become
     highlighted.   Now  you  can  move  your cursor to someplace else in your
     document and press ^K M to move the highlighted text there. You can press
     ^K  C  to  make a copy of the highlighted text and insert it to where the
     cursor is positioned.  ^K Y to  deletes  the  highlighted  text.   ^K  W,
     writes the highlighted text to a file.

     A very useful command is ^K /, which filters a block of  text  through  a
     unix  command.   For example, if you select a list of words with ^K B and
     ^K K, and then type ^K / sort, the list of words will be sorted.  Another
     useful  unix  command for ^K /, is tr.  If you type ^K / tr a-z A-Z, then
     all of the  letters  in  the  highlighted  block  will  be  converted  to

     After you are finished with some block operations, you can just leave the
     highlighting on if you don't mind it (of course, if you accidently hit ^K
     Y without noticing...).  If it really bothers you, however, just hit ^K B
     ^K K, to turn the highlighting off.

  Indenting program blocks
     Auto-indent mode toggled with the ^T I command.  The  joerc  is  normally
     set up so that files with names ending with .p, .c or .h have auto-indent
     mode enabled.  When auto-indent mode is enabled and you hit  Return,  the
     cursor  will  be  placed  in the same column that the first non-SPACE/TAB
     character was in on the original line.

     You can use the ^K , and ^K . commands to shift a block of  text  to  the
     left  or  right.  If no highlighting is set when you give these commands,
     the program block the cursor is located in will be selected, and will  be
     moved  by subsequent ^K , and ^K . commands.  The number of columns these
     commands shift by can be set through a ^T option.

     You can edit more than one file at the same time  or  edit  two  or  more
     different  places  of  the same file.  To do this, hit ^K O, to split the
     screen into two windows.  Use ^K P or ^K N to move the  cursor  into  the
     top  window  or  the lower window.  Use ^K E to edit a new file in one of
     the windows.  A window will go away when you save the file with ^K  X  or
     abort the file with ^C.  If you abort a file which exists in two windows,
     one of the window goes away, not the file.

     You can hit ^K O within a window to create even  more  windows.   If  you
     have  too  many  windows  on  the screen, but you don't want to eliminate
     them, you can hit ^K I.  This will show only the window the cursor is in,
     or  if  there was only one window on the screen to begin with, try to fit
     all hidden windows on the screen.  If there are more windows than can fit
     on  the screen, you can hit ^K N on the bottom-most window or ^K P on the
     top-most window to get to them.

     If you gave more than one file name to JOE on the command line, each file
     will be placed in a different window.

     You can change the height of the windows with the ^K G and ^K T commands.

  Keyboard macros

     Macros allow you to record a series of keystrokes and  replay  them  with
     the  press of two keys.  This is useful to automate repetitive tasks.  To
     start a macro recording, hit ^K [ followed by a number from 0 to 9.   The
     status line will display (Macro n recording...).  Now, type in the series
     of keystrokes that you want to be able to repeat.  The commands you  type
     will  have their usual effect. Hit ^K ] to stop recording the macro.  Hit
     ^K followed by the number you  recorded  the  macro  in  to  execute  one
     iteration of the key-strokes.

     For example, if you want to put "**" in front of a number of  lines,  you
     can type:

     ^K [ ^A ** <down arrow> ^K ]

     Which starts the macro recording, moves the cursor to  the  beginning  of
     the line, inserts "**", moves the cursor down one line, and then ends the
     recording. Since we included  the  key-strokes  needed  to  position  the
     cursor  on the next line, we can repeatedly use this macro without having
     to move the cursor ourselves, something you should always  keep  in  mind
     when recording a macro.

     If you find that the macro you are recording itself has a repeated set of
     key-strokes  in  it,  you can record a macro within the macro, as long as
     you use a different  macro  number.   Also  you  can  execute  previously
     recorded macros from within new macros.

     You can use the repeat command, ^K \, to repeat a  macro,  or  any  other
     edit  command  or  even  a normal character, a specified number of times.
     Hit ^K \, type in the number of times you want the command  repeated  and
     press  Return.   The next edit command you now give will be repeated that
     many times.

     For example, to delete the next 20 lines of text, type:

     ^K  20<return>^Y

  Rectangle mode
     Type ^T X to have ^K B and ^K K  select  rectangular  blocks  instead  of
     stream-of-text blocks.  This mode is useful for moving, copying, deleting
     or saving columns of text.  You can also filter columns of text with  the
     ^K / command- if you want to sort a column, for example.  The insert file
     command, ^K R is also effected.

     When rectangle mode is selected, over-type mode is also  useful  (^T  T).
     When over-type mode is selected, rectangles will  replace  existing  text
     instead of getting inserted before it.  Also the delete block command (^K
     Y) will clear the selected rectangle with  SPACEs  and  TABs  instead  of
     deleting  it.   Over-type  mode is especially useful for the filter block
     command (^K /), since it will maintain the original width of the selected

  Tag search
     If you are editing a large C program with many source files, you can  use
     the  ctags program to generate a tags file.  This file contains a list of
     program symbols and  the  files  and  positions  where  the  symbols  are
     defined.   The  ^K  ;  command can be used to lookup a symbol (functions,
     defined constants, etc.), load the file where the symbol is defined  into
     the  current  window  and  position  the  cursor  to  where the symbol is
     defined. ^K ; prompts you for the symbol you want, but  uses  the  symbol
     the  cursor  was  on  as a default.  Since ^K ; loads the definition file
     into the current window, you probably want to split the window first with
     ^K O, to have both the original file and the definition file loaded.

  Shell windows
     Hit ^K ' to run a command shell in one of JOE's windows.  When the cursor
     is at the end of a shell window (use ^K V if it's not), whatever you type
     is passed to the shell instead of the window.  Any output from the  shell
     or  from  commands  executed in the shell is appended to the shell window
     (the cursor will follow this output if it's  at  the  end  of  the  shell
     window).   This  command  is  useful  for  recording the results of shell
     commands- for example the output of make, the result of grepping a set of
     files  for  a  string,  or  directory listings from FTP sessions. Besides
     typeable characters, the keys ^C,  Backspace,  DEL,  Return  and  ^D  are
     passed to the shell.  Type the shell exit command to stop recording shell
     output.  If you press ^C in a shell window, when the cursor is not at the
     end of the window, the shell is killed.

Environment variables

     For JOE to operate correctly, a number of other environment settings must
     be  correct.   The  throughput  (baud rate) of the connection between the
     computer and your terminal must be set correctly for JOE  to  update  the
     screen  smoothly and allow typeahead to defer the screen update.  Use the
     stty nnn command to set this.  You want to set it as close as possible to
     actual  throughput  of the connection.  For example, if you are connected
     via a 1200 baud modem, you want to use this value for stty.  If  you  are
     connected  via  14.4k modem, but the terminal server you are connected to
     connects to the computer a 9600 baud, you want to set your speed as  9600
     baud.   The  special  baud rate of 38400 or extb is used to indicate that
     you have a very-high speed connection, such as a memory mapped console or
     an  X-window  terminal emulator.  If you can't use stty to set the actual
     throughput (perhaps because of a modem communicating with the computer at
     a  different  rate  than it's communicating over the phone line), you can
     put a numeric value in the BAUD environment variable instead (use  setenv
     BAUD 9600 for csh or BAUD=9600; export BAUD for sh).

     The TERM environment variable must be set to the type of terminal  you're
     using.   If  the  size  (number  of  lines/columns)  of  your terminal is
     different from what is reported in the TERMCAP or TERMINFO entry, you can
     set  this  with the stty rows nn cols nn command, or by setting the LINES
     and COLUMNS environment variables.

     JOE normally expects that flow control  between  the  computer  and  your
     terminal  to  use  ^S/^Q  handshaking  (I.E.,  if the computer is sending
     characters too fast for your terminal, your terminal sends ^S to stop the
     output  and  ^Q  to restart it).  If the flow control uses out-of-band or
     hardware handshaking or if your terminal is fast enough to always keep up
     with  the computer output and you wish to map ^S/^Q to edit commands, you
     can set the environment variable NOXON to have JOE attempt  to  turn  off
     ^S/^Q  handshaking.   If  the  connection  between  the computer and your
     terminal uses no handshaking and your terminal is not fast enough to keep
     up  with the output of the computer, you can set the environment variable
     DOPADDING  to  have  JOE  slow  down  the  output  by  interspersing  PAD
     characters between the terminal screen update sequences.

     Wherever JOE expects you to enter a file name,  whether  on  the  command
     line or in prompts within the editor, you may also type:

          Read or write data to or from a shell command.  For example, use joe
          '!ls' to get a copy of your directory listing to edit or from within
          the editor use ^K D !mail  to  send  the  file
          being edited to me.

          Use this to have JOE append the edited text to the end of  the  file

          Use this to access a fixed section of a file or device.   START  and
          SIZE  may  be  entered  in  decimal  (ex.: 123) octal (ex.: 0777) or
          hexadecimal (ex.: 0xFF).  For example,  use  joe  /dev/fd0,508,2  to
          edit bytes 508 and 509 of the first floppy drive in Linux.

     -    Use this to get input from the standard input or to write output  to
          the  standard  output.   For  example,  you can put joe in a pipe of
          commands:  quota -v | joe - | mail root, if  you  want  to  complain
          about your low quota.

The joerc file
     ^T options, the help screens  and  the  key-sequence  to  editor  command
     bindings  are  all  defined  in JOE's initialization file.  If you make a
     copy of this file (which resides in /usr/lib/joerc) to $HOME/.joerc,  you
     can   customize  these  setting  to  your  liking.   The  syntax  of  the
     initialization file should  be  fairly  obvious  and  there  are  further
     instruction in it.

     JOE was writen by Joseph H. Allen.  If you have bug reports or questions,
     e-mail      them      to      Larry     Foard
     ( and Gary Gray (  also  helped
     with the creation of JOE.