pathto, uupath - calculate mail paths

     pathto  [ -tdnsv ]  address ...
     uupath  [ -tsv ]  [ sitename|domain|path ]  ...

     These commands query the mail routing databases to determine which  paths
     will be used in sending mail to the specified hosts or addresses.

     The pathto(1) command takes the address of a user and determines the path
     that  smail(8)  would  use  for  delivery.   For  historical reasons, the
     resulting path is rewritten as a UUCP-style  `!'-path  by  default,  even
     though  this  form  may  not  be used by smail for delivery.  The leading
     sitename in the path is the site  towards  which  smail(8)  will  make  a
     delivery.   The leading sitename may be followed by a route to the target
     of the address if the leading sitename and  target  are  different.   The
     remainder  of  the  argument,  if anything, is added on to the end.  This
     command advises you on how smail(8) will handle an address but  does  not
     give  the  actual  address  that  smail(8) will use, unless the -n option

     The uupath(1) command attempts to compute  paths  from  your  machine  to
     other machines.  If the argument is the name of a site such as nsavax, or, or if it is the name of a domain such as,  then
     the  uupath(1) program will try to produce a path to that site or domain.
     If the argument is a `!'-path, then uupath computes a route to the  first
     site,  and  appends  the  remainder  of the path onto it.  For historical
     reasons, the resultant string will be ``%s'', if the host  is  the  local

     It is important to note that uupath arguments relate to sitenames,  while
     the pathto arguments relate to addresses of users.  The command:

          uupath namei

     will compute a path to the SITE named namei, while the command:

          pathto namei

     will ``compute a path'' to the USER named namei on the local machine.

     All three commands take hosts and addresses from the arguments,  or  from
     standard input if none are given as arguments.  The following options are

     -s   If smart-host routing is enabled in  the  smail  routing  databases,
          then  -s  will  cause  smart-host  routing  used as a last resort in
          computing paths.  By default, smart-host routing is not  taken  into
          account  by  these  commands.   A  smart-host  router  will route an
          address to a remote host that supposedly has a larger or more up-to-
          date routing database than the local host.

     -d   By default, pathto does not examine what will happen  when  mail  is
          actually  delivered to the final user(s).  If the final users are on
          the local system, then -d will apply  any  aliasing,  forwarding  or
          mailing  lists  expansions.   The order and number of arguments will
          not necessarily correspond to the order and number of output address
          when this option is used.

     -n   uupath will always produce a pure UUCP path, and by default so  will
          will pathto, in the interest of backward compatibility.  The -n flag
          will generate other addressing forms if they would actually be  used
          by  smail for delivery.  With the -n option, the pathto command will
          print the next-hop host that a particular address would be  sent  to
          (or  it  will  print  ``local''  if  the  address would be delivered
          locally), and it will print the address that smail will give to  the
          next-hop.  The next-hop host and the address are separated by :: and
          some whitespace.

     -t   Announce the name of the transport that would be used in  delivering
          to  an address, if the transport is known.  Local addresses that are
          not resolved using the -d flag will not produce a  tranport  because
          the  specific local transport cannot determined without applying the

     -v   Be verbose, announcing each important state of address resolution as
          it occurs.  The verbose messages are written to standard error.

     The following examples assume the following routing configuration will be
     used to compute path information:

     a.  a list  of  known  local  host  names:   amdahl,  and

     b.  a pathalias(8) database containing the lines:

               amdahl            %s
               glotz             namei!glotz!%s
               kgbvax            name!walldrug!kgbvax!%s
               namei             namei!%s
               nsavax            namei!glotz!nsavax!%s

         where each path will use UUX for delivery.

     c.  a known network connection to the host eek, which is  also  known  as

     d.  domains of the form [number.number.number.number] are  recognized  as
         internet numbers to be delivered using TCP/IP.

     e.  the  path  namei!glotz!nsavax  is  used  as  a  smart-host  path  for
         addresses the localhost cannot route.

     The following commands, in italic, will produce the corresponding output:

          $ uupath nsavax mit-prep
          uupath: no route found to mit-prep

          $ uupath -s mit-prep!rms

          $ pathto

          $ pathto -n @[]
          [] ::

          $ pathto brown@nsavax

     An error message will be written to standard error if there is  a  syntax
     error in an address, or if no path can be found for an address and smart-
     host routing is not being used.  In case of such errors,  these  programs
     return  an  appropriate  exit code from the file /usr/include/sysexits.h;
     e.g., EX_DATAERR or EX_NOHOST.


     /usr/lib/smail/paths          Standard ascii path database.

     /usr/lib/smail/routers        Smail routing configuration.

     smail(8), smail(5), pathalias(8) and pathalias(5).

     Your local site does not always know a correct path to every site.

     Routing is only as  good  as  your  routing  information.   Smail  cannot
     compensate for out-of-date or poorly syncronized databases.

     Copyright(C)1987, 1988 Ronald S. Karr and Landon Curt Noll
     Copyright(C)1992 Ronald S. Karr
     See a file COPYING, distributed with the source code, or type  smail  -bc
     for distribution rights and restrictions associated with this software.